A variable disorder of carbohydrates metabolism characterized by the impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintains proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
A variable disorder cause by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors and unusually characterized by inadequate secretion of utilization of insulin.
A group of metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (increase glucose in the blood) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
Normally, during digestion, the body changes sugar starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Then the blood carries this glucose to cells throughout the body. There, with the help of Insulin (a hormone). Glucose is changed into quick energy from immediate use by the cells or is stored for the future needs (Insulin is made in the beta cells of the pancreas, a small organ that lies behind the stomach). This process of turning food into energy is crucial, because the body depends on food for everyday actions, from pumping blood and thinking, to running and jumping.
In diabetes, something goes wrong with the normal process of turning food in energy. Food is changed into glucose readily, but there is a problem with insulin, either it is absent or it is insufficient. When insulin is absent or insufficient, the glucose in bloodstream cannot be used by the cells to make energy. Instead, glucose accumulates in the blood eventually leading to the high sugar levels that are hallmark of untreated diabetes.
Risk Factors and Possible Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
All people are vulnerable to the disease throughout their lives. However, the risk is higher as you grow older. There is a gradual increase in susceptibility, with slight peaks at puberty and during pregnancy, until we reach the age of 40. Then there is a rapid jump.
If you have a family history of diabetes, especially parents or siblings with diabetes, then you’re near the top of the list in terms of risk. Hereditary is the most important predisposing factor for diabetes, specially the type 1 diabetes. Type II diabetes also tends to run in families, but since 80-85 % of all cases occur among people who are over 40 and over weight, obesity is considered more important in the development of this form of the disease.
80-85 percent of people with type II diabetes are overweight. It is true that not all overweight people have diabetes. But if you are obese, you may be setting yourself up for this disease 10-20 years from now. You are considered obese, if you are more than 20 percent over ideal body weight.
In the United States the disease is more common among Africans-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. More than 40% of Pima Indians in the United States have type 2 diabetes. However, that race along does not predict diabetes; it must be combines with another factor, such as obesity.
In women having a history of gestational diabetes or delivery of babies weighing more than 9 pounds.
The diet that causes an increased risk of diabetes are: high calories, high fat, high cholesterol, low fiber, salty diet, and sweets. The presence of the risk factors not predicts diabetes, but it does suggest a possibility. The more risk factors you have, the grater your chance of developing diabetes.
While specific causes of diabetes remains a mystery, there are some triggering factors responsible:
Stress or emotional upsets lasting for a long time
The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize insulin activity and blood glucose levels to reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications. Therefore, the therapeutic goal for diabetes management is to achieve normal glucose levels (euglycemia) without hypoglycemia while maintaining a high quality of life. Diabetes management has five components
Treatment varies because of change in lifestyle and physical and emotional status as well as advances in treatment method.