Doctors cannot explain why one person develops cancer and others do not. But research shows that certain risk factors increase the chances that a person will develop cancer. These are risk factors for the most common cancer:
· Tobacco or cigarettes smoking
· Exposure to sunlight
· Ionizing Radiation
· Some viruses and bacteria
· Certain hormones
· Family history of cancer
· Certain chemicals and other substances
· Poor diet, physical inactivity, excess weight
Many of these risk factors can avoid. Others, such as family history, cannot be avoided. People can protect themselves by staying away from known risk factors whenever possible.
If you think you might be at risk of cancer, you should discuss this issue with your doctor. You may want to ask about risk reduction and test plans.
Over time, several factors may act together to cause normal cells to become cancerous. Thinking about cancer risk, here are some things to consider:
Not everything can cause cancer.
Cancer does not cause by injury, such as a bump or bruise.
Cancer is not contagious. Despite infection with certain viruses or bacteria may increase the risk of certain cancers, one cannot "catch" cancer from another person.
Have one or more risk factors do not mean you will get cancer. Most people who have risk factors never develop cancer.
The most important risk factors for cancer are growing. Most tumors occur in people over 50 years of age. But people of all ages, including children, can get cancer, too.
Tobacco use or Cigarettes Smoking
The use of tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death. Each year, more than 150,000 Americans die of cancer associated with tobacco use.
The use of tobacco or products regularly being around tobacco smoke (passive smoking or secondhand smoke) increases the risk of cancer.
Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to develop lung cancer, larynx (voice box), mouth, esophagus, bladder, kidney, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and cervix. They are also more likely to develop acute myeloid leukemia (cancer that begins in blood cells).
People who use smokeless tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco) are at increased risk of oral cancer.
Quitting from smoking is important for anyone using tobacco - even people who used it for many years. The risk of cancer for people who stop is less than the risk for people who continue to use tobacco. (But the risk of cancer is usually less than those who never used tobacco.)
Moreover, for people with cancer, quitting smoking can reduce the risk of another cancer.
Exposure to Sunlight
Ultraviolet (UV) from the sun, sunlamps, and tanning booths. This causes premature aging and skin damage that can lead to skin cancer.
Doctors encourage people of all ages to limit their time in the sun and avoid other sources of UV radiation:
It is best to avoid the midday sun (from mid-morning to late afternoon) as possible. You should also protect against UV radiation reflected by sand, water, snow and ice. UV rays can penetrate light clothing, windshields and windows.
The ionizing radiation
Ionizing radiation can cause cell damage that leads to cancer. This kind of radiation comes from rays that enter the atmosphere of Earth from outer space, radioactive fallout, radon gas, x-rays and other sources.
The radioactive fallout can come from accidents at nuclear facilities in the production or testing, or deployment of nuclear weapons. People exposed to fallout may be at increased risk of cancer, especially leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, breast, lung and stomach.
Some viruses and bacteria
Being infected with certain viruses or bacteria may increase the risk of developing cancer:
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: Liver cancer can develop after many years of infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. People who have HIV infection are at greater risk of cancer, such as lymphoma and a rare cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma.
Having more than two drinks a day over many years may increase the likelihood of developing cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, larynx, liver and breast. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol you drink. For most of these tumors, the risk is higher for a drinker who uses tobacco.
Family History of Cancer
If you think you have a model of some types of cancer, your family, you should talk to your doctor. The doctor may recommend as trying reducing the risk of cancer. The doctor may also suggest the tests can detect early cancer.
You could ask your doctor about genetic testing. These tests can determine some heritable genetic changes that increase the risk of developing cancer. But inherited genetic mutation does not mean you will definitely develop cancer. This means they have a higher chance of developing the disease.
Certain chemicals and other substances
People who have certain jobs (such as painters, construction workers, and those in the chemical industry) have an increased risk of cancer. Many studies have shown that exposure to asbestos, benzene can, Benzidine, cadmium, nickel, or vinyl chloride in the workplace lead to cancer.
Poor diet, physical inactivity, excess weight
People with a poor diet, lack of exercise or being overweight may be at increased risk of certain cancers. For example, studies show that people whose diets are high in fat has a higher risk of colon cancer in the uterus, and prostate. Physical activity and obesity are risk factors for breast cancer, colon, esophagus, kidney and uterus.